Category: Europe

From Prague to Putin: An Analysis of Czech-Russian Relations and their Echoes in Eastern Europe

by ANNA STONEMAN, University of Chicago '21 The democratization of the Czech Republic has long been predictive of the political and ideological leanings of Eastern Europe. For a brief period during the heart of the Cold War and the decades following, the nation became widely perceived as bastion of the West, and the ideology it ...

Compliance and the Paris Climate Deal: How To Ensure Nations Keep Their Promises

by KENT KELLER Last December, 195 nations adopted the Paris climate agreement, a UN treaty that many are hailing as the turning point for global efforts to address the threat of climate change. The agreement acts as a framework in which nations pledge to reduce or curtail their greenhouse emissions and provide funding to prepare ...

Merkel’s Open Borders: Reanalyzing German National Security

GABRIEL DAVIS In February 2015, German Chancellor Angela Merkel, responding to Syria’s grisly civil war and the growing number of migrants it produced, “threw open [Germany’s] doors” to let in upwards of one million refugees.[1] Just nine months later, Paris exploded with the deadliest terror attacks on French shores since World War II[2], rocking the ...

The Many Flaws of Fascism: Explaining the Nazi Defeat

by JOSEPH LOCASCIO Fascism gave way to the combined might of democracy and communism in World War II. Considering the vile nature of the Nazis’ regime, it is hardly surprising that their vision of modernity was not a long-lived one. Indeed, Jarausch concludes, in part for this reason, that it was “No wonder that democratic modernity ...

The War Guilt Controversy: Germany as a Benevolent Challenger in WWI

by OLIVIA LIN Conventional scholarship, along with the Treaty of Versailles itself, have characterized Germany as one of the chief aggressors of World War I. In addition to the necessary historical conditions that set the stage for war, WWI could also be viewed as the culmination of a series of miscalculations among military strategists of ...

The Draught of Dominion: Power, Reason, and the Liberal Justification of Empire

by JOSEPH LOCASCIO Francis Fukuyama argues that “most ‘liberal’ European societies were illiberal insofar as they believed in the legitimacy of imperialism, that is, the right of one nation to rule over another nation without regard for the wishes of the ruled.”[1]Imperialism, so the argument goes, is fundamentally illiberal. A nation cannot both rule despotically over ...

The Rise of the Athenian Empire: Power, Survival, and the Spartan Contribution

by JOSEPH LOCASCIO Was Sparta responsible for the rise of the Athenian Empire? Not to a great degree. Indeed, Sparta did not even provide a crucial push in the direction of Athenian Empire. It is fair to say, however, that Sparta facilitated the process by which Athens began to play the imperial role. Despite Spartan ...